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NGAL in the Diagnosis of Type 1 Cardio-Renal Syndrome in the General Ward
Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in the Diagnosis of Type 1 Cardio-Renal Syndrome in the General Ward
Margarida Alvelos MD, et al.1 Hospital Sao Joao, Porto, Portugal
In patients with acute heart failure (HF), worsening renal function (WRF) is frequent, occurring in 11% to 40% of patients, and is associated with increased risk of death and hospitalization.1
The Cardio-Renal Syndrome (CRS) is a disorder of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other.2
Type 1 CRS or acute cardio-renal syndrome (ACRS) is characterized by an acute heart disorder leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). The early identification of acute heart failure patients with type 1 cardio-renal syndrome should be the first step for developing treatment strategies aimed at the preservation of kidney function and prevention of AKI.
Serum creatinine (sCr), the currently used diagnostic tool for assessment of AKI, is a late, insensitive and non-specific marker for AKI. Novel biomarkers such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) can be used together with sCr and may improve the rapid assessment of AKI and allow for prevention of WRF.
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